Clinical UM Guideline


Subject:Scrotal Ultrasound
Guideline #:  CG-MED-48Current Effective Date:  07/15/2014
Status:ReviewedLast Review Date:  05/15/2014

Description

This document addresses the use of ultrasound imaging technologies for the evaluation of conditions affecting the scrotum and testes.

Clinical Indications

Medically Necessary:

The use of scrotal ultrasound is considered medically necessary for the following conditions:

  1. Evaluation of acute scrotal symptoms (for example, pain, swelling) and trauma; or
  2. Evaluation of scrotal asymmetry or enlargement (including suspected hydroceles); or
  3. Evaluation of scrotal masses; or
  4. Detection or evaluation of varicoceles; or
  5. Evaluation of male infertility; or
  6. Evaluation of testicular ischemia or torsion; or
  7. Evaluation of suspected infectious or inflammatory scrotal disease; or
  8. Detection of occult primary tumors in individuals with metastatic germ cell tumors.

Not Medically Necessary: 

The use of scrotal ultrasound is considered not medically necessary for the localization of undescended testes.

The use of scrotal ultrasound is considered not medically necessary for any condition not listed above.

Coding

The following codes for treatments and procedures applicable to this guideline are included below for informational purposes. Inclusion or exclusion of a procedure, diagnosis or device code(s) does not constitute or imply member coverage or provider reimbursement policy. Please refer to the member's contract benefits in effect at the time of service to determine coverage or non-coverage of these services as it applies to an individual member.

CPT 
76870Ultrasound, scrotum and contents
  
ICD-9 Diagnosis[For dates of service prior to 10/01/2015]
186.0-186.9Malignant neoplasm of testis
187.5-187.9Malignant neoplasm of other male genital organs
198.82Secondary malignant neoplasm of genital organs
222.0Benign neoplasm of testis
222.3-222.9Benign neoplasm of epididymis, scrotum, other male genital organs
233.6Carcinoma in situ of other and unspecified male genital organs
236.4Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of testis
236.6Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of other and unspecified male genital organs
239.5Neoplasm of unspecified nature of other genitourinary organs
456.4Scrotal varices
603.0-603.9Hydrocele
604.0-604.99Orchitis and epididymitis
606.0-606.9Infertility, male
608.0-608.9Other disorders of male genital organs
752.51-752.52Undescended and retractile testicle
752.81Scrotal transposition
752.89Other specified anomalies of genital organs
778.6Congenital hydrocele
867.6-867.7Injury to other specified pelvic organs
878.2-878.3Open wound of scrotum and testes
926.0Crushing injury of external genitalia
959.14Other injury of external genitals
  
ICD-10 Diagnosis[For dates of service on or after 10/01/2015]
C62.00-C62.92Malignant neoplasm of testis
C63.00-C63.9Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified male genital organs
C79.82Secondary malignant neoplasm of genital organs
D07.60-D07.69Carcinoma in situ of other and unspecified male genital organs
D29.20-D29.22Benign neoplasm of testis
D29.30-D29.9Benign neoplasm of epididymis, scrotum, other male genital organs
D40.10-D40.12Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of testis
D40.8-D40.9Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of other and unspecified male genital organs
D49.5Neoplasm of unspecified behavior of other genitourinary organs
I86.1Scrotal varices
N43.0-N43.42Hydrocele and spermatocele
N44.00-N44.8Noninflammatory disorders of testis
N45.1-N45.4Orchitis and epididymitis
N46.01-N46.9Male infertility
N50.0-N50.9Other disorders of male genital organs
P83.5Congenital hydrocele
Q53.00-Q53.9Undescended and ectopic testicle
Q55.0-Q55.4Other congenital malformations of male genital organs
S30.22XA-S30.22XSContusion of scrotum and testes
S30.843A-S30.843SExternal constriction of scrotum and testes
S30.853A-S30.853SSuperficial foreign body of scrotum and testes
S30.94XA-S30.94XSUnspecified superficial injury of scrotum and testes
S31.30XA-S31.35XSOpen wound of scrotum and testes
S38.02XA-S38.02XSCrushing injury of scrotum and testis
S39.848A-S39.848SOther specified injuries of external genitals
S39.94XA-S39.94XSUnspecified injury of external genitals
  
Discussion/General Information

Ultrasonography (US) is a medical technology that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures of the body.  Additionally, some US devices utilize additional technologies not only to assess the physical structure and position of internal parts of the body, but also to evaluate their function.  As a result, US is a widely accepted technique in the evaluation of scrotal conditions, allowing for medical evaluation of serious conditions without the need for invasive surgery or techniques that expose individuals to radiation. 

The American Institute of Ultrasound Medicine (AUIM) published its Practice Guideline for the Performance of Scrotal Ultrasound Examinations in 2011.  This document, which was jointly developed with the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound, provides guidance for a wide variety of indications where US is understood to be beneficial.  Such indications include acute scrotum, which may be caused by a wide variety of conditions.  US evaluation for acute scrotum is supported by over 20 years of study data indicating sensitivity between 70-100% and specificity between 88-100% (Al Mufti, 1995; Paltiel, 1998, Vajayaraghavan, 2006; Wilbert, 1993; Yazbeck, 1994).  One of the most common causes of acute scrotum is testicular torsion.  Several studies have investigated the use of US for the evaluation of this condition specifically, indicating sensitivity between 63-86%, specificity between 89-100%, and accuracy between 99-100% (Baker, 2000; Baldisserotto, 2005; Burks, 1990; Kalfa, 2007; Karmazyn, 2005).  The most recent data, from a large study conducted by Yagil and colleagues, reported that sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of US was 94%, 96%, and 99.5% for testicular torsion, 92%, 95%, and 94% for testicular malignancy, and 100%, 98.5%, 98.5% for testicular hematoma, respectively.  This study also reported on the beneficial use of US for hydrocele, hernia, testicular mass, abscess, chryptorchidism, and orchiepididymitis. Additional indications have also been studied elsewhere, including infertility.  Pierik and others conducted a large study of 1,372 subjects with suspected infertility, in which they reported sensitivity of 65.7% and specificity of 91% (1999). 

The ACR, in its Appropriateness Criteria for children and adults with acute onset of scrotal pain without trauma or antecedent mass, rates US of the scrotum a 9 out of 9, indicating "usually appropriate" (2011).  They comment that color doppler ultrasound:

Is the study of choice to evaluate patients with acute scrotal pain due to its widespread availability and its ability to diagnose testicular torsion with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity and to distinguish other causes of scrotal pain and swelling.

The American Urological Association, as part of its "Choosing Wisely" initiative, has published a document titled "Five things physicians and patients should question" (2013) that lists five common medical procedures or treatments that they recommend against. The fifth item on the list is "Don't perform ultrasound on boys with cryptorchidism."  They provide the following rationale for US for this statement regarding undescended testis:

Ultrasound has been found to have poor diagnostic performance in the localization of testes that cannot be felt through physical examination.  Studies have shown that the probability of locating testes was small when using ultrasound, and there was still a significant chance that testes were present even after a negative ultrasound result.  Additionally, ultrasound results are complicated by the presence of surrounding tissue and bowel gas present in the abdomen.

This statement is supported by a meta-analysis published by Tasian and Copp (Tasian, 2011b).  The result of this study found that US for undescended testis has a sensitivity of 45% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29–61) and a specificity of 78% (95% CI: 43–94).  The positive and negative likelihood ratios are 1.48 (95% CI: 0.54–4.03) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.46–1.35), respectively.  The authors stated that a positive ultrasound result increases and negative ultrasound result decreases the probability that a nonpalpable testis is located within the abdomen from 55% to 64% and 49%, respectively.  They conclude: "Ultrasound does not reliably localize nonpalpable testes and does not rule out an intraabdominal testis.  Eliminating the use of ultrasound will not change management of nonpalpable cryptorchidism."

In 2013, Abdulwahed and others published the findings of a prospective case series study involving 268 azoospermic men who underwent both scrotal and transrectal US evaluation.  All subjects had previously undergone biopsy and had histopathological results available.  The authors reported that the sensitivity and specificity of scrotal US in detecting nonobstructive azoospermia was 75% and 72%, respectively.  For obstructive azoospermia, sensitivity and specificity was reported as 29.8% and 87%, respectively.  Rectal US was 45% sensitive and and 83% specific in detecting obstructive azoospermia and 39% sensitive and 88% specific in detecting functional azoospermia. While scrotal US was more sensitive in detecting functional azoospermia and more specific in detecting obstructive azoospermia, transrectal US was more sensitive in detecting obstructive azoospermia and more specific in detecting functional azoospermia. The authors noted that both tests had greater specificity than sensitivity for obstructive azoospermia, indicating that US has the ability to exclude more than to diagnose cases of obstructive azoospermia. These findings continue to support a role for  scrotal ultrasound for the evaluation of individuals suspected of male infertility.

Definitions

Hydroceles: A condition where there is abnormal fluid buildup within the scrotum around the testicle.

Metastatic germ cell tumors: Cancer cells that are derive from cells involved with the production of sperm or eggs, which have migrated from their point of origin to another location in the body.

Occult primary tumor: A cancer cell that has an unknown point of origin.

Testicular ischemia: A condition where blood supply to the testes is insufficient.

Testicular neoplasm: Cancer of the testes.

Testicular torsion: A condition where the spermatic cord suspending the testicles becomes twisted, interfering with normal blood supply.

Undescended testes: Also known as cryptorchidism.  A condition characterized by absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.

Varicoceles: A condition where the complex of veins draining from the structures within the scrotum becomes enlarged.

References

Peer Reviewed Publications: 

  1. Abdulwahed SR, Mohamed EE, Taha EA, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in predicting etiology of azoospermia. Urology. 2013; 81(5):967-971.
  2. al Mufti RA, Ogedegbe AK, Lafferty K. The use of Doppler ultrasound in the clinical management of acute testicular pain. Br J Urol. 1995; 76(5):625-627.
  3. Baker LA, Sigman D, Mathews RI, et al. An analysis of clinical outcomes using color doppler testicular ultrasound for testicular torsion. Pediatrics. 2000; 105(3 Pt 1):604-607.
  4. Baldisserotto M, de Souza JC, Pertence AP, Dora MD. Color Doppler sonography of normal and torsed testicular appendages in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005; 184(4):1287-1292.
  5. Burks DD, Markey BJ, Burkhard TK, et al. Suspected testicular torsion and ischemia: evaluation with color Doppler sonography. Radiology. 1990; 175(3):815-821.
  6. Cain MP, Garra B, Gibbons MD. Scrotal-inguinal ultrasonography: a technique for identifying the nonpalpable inguinal testis without laparoscopy. J Urol. 1996; 156(2 Pt 2):791-794.
  7. Kalfa N, Veyrac C, Lopez M, et al. Multicenter assessment of ultrasound of the spermatic cord in children with acute scrotum. J Urol. 2007; 177(1):297-301.
  8. Karmazyn B, Steinberg R, Kornreich L, et al. Clinical and sonographic criteria of acute scrotum in children: a retrospective study of 172 boys. Pediatr Radiol. 2005; 35(3):302-310.
  9. Paltiel HJ, Connolly LP, Atala A, et al. Acute scrotal symptoms in boys with an indeterminate clinical presentation: comparison of color Doppler sonography and scintigraphy. Radiology. 1998; 207(1):223-231.
  10. Pierik FH, Dohle GR, van Muiswinkel JM, et al. Is routine scrotal ultrasound advantageous in infertile men? J Urol. 1999; 162(5):1618-1620.
  11. Tasian GE, Copp HL. Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Pediatrics. 2011a; 127(1):119-128.
  12. Tasian GE, Copp HL, Baskin LS. Diagnostic imaging in cryptorchidism: utility, indications, and effectiveness. J Pediatr Surg. 2011b; 46(12):2406-2413.
  13. Vijayaraghavan SB. Sonographic differential diagnosis of acute scrotum: real-time whirlpool sign, a key sign of torsion. J Ultrasound Med. 2006; 25(5):563-574.
  14. Wilbert DM, Schaerfe CW, Stern WD, et al. Evaluation of the acute scrotum by color-coded Doppler ultrasonography. J Urol. 1993; 149(6):1475-1477.
  15. Yagil Y, Naroditsky I, Milhem J, et al. Role of Doppler ultrasonography in the triage of acute scrotum in the emergency department. J Ultrasound Med. 2010; 29(1):11-21.
  16. Yazbeck S, Patriquin HB. Accuracy of Doppler sonography in the evaluation of acute conditions of the scrotum in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1994; 29(9):1270-1272.

Government Agency, Medical Society, and Other Authoritative Publications: 

  1. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria.  Acute onset of scrotal pain- without trauma, without antecedent mass. 2011. Available at: http://www.acr.org/Quality-Safety/Appropriateness-Criteria/Diagnostic.  Accessed on February 28, 2014.
  2. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. AIUM practice guideline for the performance of scrotal ultrasound examinations. J Ultrasound Med. 2011; 30(1):151–155.
  3. American Urological Association. Choosing wisely: Five things physicians and patients should question. 2013. Available at: http://www.choosingwisely.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/AUA-5things-List_Web.pdf.  Accessed on February 28, 2014.
  4. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology™ (NCCN). © 2011 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. For additional information visit the NCCN website at: http://www.nccn.org/index.asp. Accessed on February 28, 2014.
    • Testicular Cancer (V1.2014). Revised December 13, 2013.
History

Status

Date

Action

Reviewed05/15/2014Medical Policy & Technology Assessment Committee (MPTAC) review. No change to clinical indications.  Updated Reference section.
New05/09/2013MPTAC review. Initial document development.